Chaucer and “Twitter”
The Atlantic Magazine recently mentioned a tweet from the Oxford English Dictionary noting that Geoffrey Chaucer has the earliest attested use of the word “twitter”. It comes from his translation of Boethius’s “De Consolatione Philosophiæ”, which he called “Boece” (1380).
The usage in question is (in Middle English)
Yet nevertheless, if such a bird springs out of her tight cage, sees the agreeable shadows of the woods, she befouls with her feet her scattered food, and seeks mourning only the wood and twitters desiring the wood with her sweet voice.
Chaucer was translating Boethius’s original Latin. I was interested to see what word he attempted to capture. The original sentence was:
The last line is “whispers to the woods with her sweet voice”, so the word in question here is “susurrare”, “to whisper or murmur”
Chaucer was also consulting Jean de Meun’s 13th-century translation written in Old French to guide his own. Meun’s translation was:
Other than “douce voiz”, i.e., “sweet voice” there is nothing there alluding to the timbre of this voice. It seems to be an affectation that Meun ignores and Chaucer retains.
In town as it longes (lounges)
The osel (blackbird) twitters in merry songs
At night for dread
Truly no song does he grede (cry out)
The original Latin here reads:
So, “pulchris zinzitat”; or “chirps beautifully”. So Trevisa was translating the rarer word “zinzitare”.
It’s interesting that “susarrare” and “zinizitare” both have a dual constant sound “s-s”, “z-z” similar to “twitter”, “t-t”. In all cases they are onomatopoetic. Also, recent scholar ship has Chaucer writing ‘Boece’ in ~1380, not 1374 as the OED lists, and Trevisa started writing is translation in 1385 bring the dates of their usage closer together. It’s impossible to say if Chaucer actually coined the word and Trevisa made use of it, or if it was in usage during that time.
The OED gives the etymology of “twitter” simply as: “Of imitative origin: compare Old High German zwizirôn , -erôn”. There’s no indication of any Latin derivation, but I can help but noticing the similarity between “zwizerôn” and “zinzitare”. Ultimately it may be that Chaucer simply was groping for a more poetic word with avian connotations given the context and chose one with both a direct influence from the low countries and had a close analogue in Latin.
Scientists at the University of California recently announced the discovery of a star with the shortest known period orbiting around the black hole at the center of the Milky Way (Sagittarius A*) at only 11.5 years. The new star has been designated “S0-102”.
A diagram accompanying the announcement shows the orbit of both S0-102 and S0-2, the star with the previous shortest known period (as well as the orbit of various other stars buzzing around the black hole.)
To provide a sense of scale, I added a small sub-diagram showing the relative size of the orbits of Sedna and Pluto. Sedna has the largest known aphelion of any body orbiting the sun other than some long-period comets; still, this shows that the neighborhood of Sagittarius A* is comparable in scale to that of the Sun, though of course with far greater gravitational intensity.
Some basic trigonometry indicates that the .2 arc seconds shown on the diagram represents about 8.8 light days. Which is amazingly compact given the usual distances associated with stars. (Or course, that is over 140 billion miles, so it is only relatively compact.) Computing the relative sizes of Senda’s and Pluto’s orbits are equally straightforward, coming out to .1277 arc seconds and .0103 arc seconds respectively.
To get a sense of the enormity of the Milky Way’s black hole, consider that Sedna orbits the Sun in about 11,700 years. Sagittarius A* pulls S0-102 through its orbit in only 11.5 years. S0-102 reaches over 1% the speed of light at perihelion.