Black Suffrage in Federalist America
In 1790, free black men could vote on equal terms with whites in New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and North Carolina. Free black men were enfranchised in the new states of Kentucky in 1792 and Tennessee in 1796, although the right was removed in Kentucky in 1798 and in Tennessee in 1834.
(Noted in The Rise of American Democracy: Jeffreson to Lincoln by Sean Wilentz.)
Pluto’s Final Indignity
Once the International Astronomical Union (IAU) made its final decision on the definition of a planet, several outstanding naming issues were able to go ahead. One such issue was the official naming of the objected designated 2003 UB313, nicknamed “Xena” by its discoverers, as “Eris”, or more officially, 136199 Eris.
What’s most startling about these numbers is their sheer magnitude: that six-figure digit for Pluto signifies that it is the 134,340th minor planet to have been catalogued since the first asteroid, Ceres, was discovered in 1801.
134340 Pluto and its three moons, Charon, Hydra (P1) and Nix (P2)
There as been an explosion in the number of asteroid discoveries in just the last ten years due to robotic sky surveys, such as The Lincoln Near Earth Asteroid Research (LINEAR), The Lowell Observatory Near-Earth-Object Search (LONEOS) and Spacewatch. As of 1996, the highest assigned asteroid number was for 7367 Giotto. In less than 10 years, over 100,000 new objects have been discovered, had their orbits determined and been assigned catalogue numbers.
I was struck by this line from a recent reflection written by Roger Angell for The New Yorker:
Every so often I find myself a bit awed at how much the world has changed in my relatively short lifetime. As a kid in the 60’s and 70’s the Amazon rain forest was an endless expanse of utter mystery; the Arctic an impossibly remote place; urban sprawl was just beginning its creep; malls were barely known. In 40 or so short years, places that seemed protected by their sheer vastness and distance are under threat, and even my home town appears about to be over run by growth.
The note about Justice Holmes above led me to realize that I’m about 1/5th the age of the United States—a rather significant percentage (and which only continues to grow.) Only 4 other of my lifetimes connects back to the age of George Washington. When looked at from this perspective, the sense of accelerating change is really one of unwarranted expectations of stability.
Molecular evidence suggests that our common ancestor with chimpanzees lived, in Africa, between five and seven million years ago, say half a million generations ago. This is not long by evolutionary standards … in your left hand you hold the right hand of your mother. In turn she holds the hand of her mother, your grandmother. Your grandmother holds her mother’s hand, and so on … How far do we have to go until we reach our common ancestor with the chimpanzees? It is a surprisingly short way. Allowing one yard per person, we arrive at the ancestor we share with chimpanzees in under 300 miles.
The cradle rocks above an abyss, and common sense tells us that our existence is but a brief crack of light between two eternities of darkness.